Questions 1-5 The following reading passage has five sections A-E. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. NB. There are more headings than sections, so you will not use them all. 1    Section   A 2    Section   … more →

What is Music? A. Music has probably existed for as long as man has been human, and it certainly predates civilization by tens of millennia. Yet even today there is no clear definition of exactly what music is. For example, birdsong is certainly melodic, but it is not tuneful, and it is not created with … more →

Antarctic Penguins Though penguins are assumed to be native to the South Pole, only four of the seventeen species have evolved the survival adaptations necessary to live and breed in the Antarctic year round. The physical features of the Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, and Emperor penguins equip them to withstand the harshest living conditions in the … more →

An Era of Abundance Our knowledge of the complex pathways underlying digestive processes is rapidly expanding, although there is still a great deal we do not fully understand. On the one hand, digestion, like any other major human biological system, is astonishing in its intricacy and cleverness. Our bodies manage to extract the complex resources … more →

Air Rage (A) The first recorded case of an airline passenger turning seriously violent during a flight, a phenomenon now widely known as “air rage”, happened in 1947 on a flight from Havana to Miami. A drunk man assaulted another passenger and bit a flight attendant. However, the man escaped punishment because it was not … more →

You are advised to spend about 15 minutes on Questions 1 – 14 which refer to reading passage below: Finding The Lost Freedom 1. The private car is assumed to have widened our horizons and increased our mobility. When we consider our children’s mobility, they can be driven to more places (and more distant places) … more →

Investigating Children’s Language A For over 200 years, there has been an interest in the way children learn to speak and understand their first language. Scholars carried out several small-scale studies, especially towards the end of the 19th century, using data they recorded in parental diaries. But detailed, systematic investigation did not begin until the … more →

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27–40, which are based on reading passage below: Helium’s Future Up In The Air A In recent years we have all been exposed to dire media reports concerning the impending demise of global coal and oil reserves, but the depletion of another key nonrenewable resource continues without … more →

Advantages of Public Transport A A New study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University’s Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and … more →